Originally posted on Chauhan Weapons:
Ancient weapons were evolutionary improvements of late neolithic implements, but then significant improvements in materials and crafting techniques created a series of revolutions in military technology:
The development of metal tools, beginning with copper during the Copper Age (about 3,300 BC) and followed shortly by bronze led to the Bronze Age sword and similar weapons.
The first defensive structures and fortifications appeared in the Bronze Age, indicating an increased need for security. Weapons designed to breach fortifications followed soon after, for example the battering ram was in use by 2500 BC.
Although early Iron Age swords were not superior to their bronze predecessors, once iron-working developed, around 1200 BC in Sub-Saharan Africa, iron began to be used widely in weapon production.
Domestication of the horse and widespread use of spoked wheels by ca. 2000 BC, led to the light, horse-drawn chariot. The mobility provided by chariots were important during this era. Spoke-wheeled chariot usage peaked around 1300 BC and then declined, ceasing to be militarily relevant by the 4th century BC.
Cavalry developed once horses were bred to support the weight of a man. The horse extended the range and increased the speed of attacks.
Ships built as weapons or warships such as the trireme were in use by the 7th century BC. These ships were eventually replaced by larger ships by the 4th century BC.